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Kamis, 27 Desember 2012

Hercules Hughes H-4

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H-4 Hercules "Spruce Goose"
Role Heavy transport flying boat
Manufacturer Hughes Aircraft
First flight November 2, 1947
Produced 1947
Number built 1
Career
Other name(s) "Spruce Goose"
Registration NX37602
First flight November 2, 1947
Flights 1
Preserved at Evergreen Aviation Museum
The Hughes H-4 Hercules (also known as the "Spruce Goose"; registration NX37602) is a prototype heavy transport aircraft designed and built by the Hughes Aircraft company. The aircraft made its first and only flight on November 2, 1947, and the project never advanced beyond the single example produced. Built from wood because of wartime restrictions on the use of aluminum and concerns about weight, its critics nicknamed it the "Spruce Goose," despite it being made almost entirely of birch rather than spruce.[1] The Hercules is the largest flying boat ever built and has the largest wingspan of any aircraft in history.[2] It survives in good condition at the Evergreen Aviation Museum in McMinnville, Oregon, USA.

Contents

Design and development

Size comparison between the H-4 and a Douglas DC-3.
In 1942, the U.S. War Department was faced with the need to transport war materiel and personnel to Britain. Allied shipping in the Atlantic Ocean was suffering heavy losses to German U-boats, so a requirement was issued for an aircraft that could cross the Atlantic with a large payload. Due to wartime priorities, the design was further constrained in that the aircraft could not be made of metal.
The aircraft was the brainchild of Henry J. Kaiser, a leading Liberty ship builder. He teamed with aircraft designer Howard Hughes to create what would become the largest aircraft built at that time. It was designed to be capable of carrying 750 fully equipped troops or one M4 Sherman tank.[3] The original designation "HK-1" reflected the Hughes and Kaiser collaboration.[4]
The HK-1 contract was issued in 1942 as a development contract[5] and called for three aircraft to be constructed under a two-year deadline in order to be available for the war effort.[6] Seven configurations were considered including twin-hull and single-hull designs with combinations of four, six, and eight wing-mounted engines.[7] The final design chosen was a behemoth, eclipsing any large transport then built.[5][8] [N 1] To conserve metal, it would be built mostly of wood (its elevators and rudder were fabric covered[9]); hence, the "Spruce Goose" moniker tagged on the aircraft by the media. It was also referred to as the Flying Lumberyard by critics. Hughes himself detested the nickname "Spruce Goose".[10]
While Kaiser had originated the "flying cargo ship" concept, he did not have an aeronautical background and deferred to Hughes and his designer, Glenn Odekirk.[8] Development dragged on, which frustrated Kaiser, who blamed delays partly on restrictions placed for the acquisition of strategic materials such as aluminum, but also placed part of the blame on Hughes' insistence on "perfection."[11] Although construction of the first HK-1 took place 16 months after the receipt of the development contract, Kaiser withdrew from the project.[10]
Rearward view of the Hercules H-4's fuselage
Hughes continued the program on his own under the designation "H-4 Hercules",[N 2] signing a new government contract that now limited production to one example. Work proceeded slowly, with the result that the H-4 was not completed until well after the war was over. It was built by the Hughes Aircraft Company at Hughes Airport, location of present day Playa del Rey, Los Angeles, California, employing the plywood-and-resin "Duramold" process[12] [N 3] – a form of composite technology – for the laminated wood construction, which was considered a technological tour de force.[4] It was shipped on streets to Pier E in Long Beach, California by a company specializing in house moving. The Spruce Goose was moved in three large sections consisting of the fuselage and each wing, and a fourth smaller shipment containing the tail assembly parts and other smaller assemblies. After final assembly a hangar was erected around the flying boat with a ramp to launch the H-4 into the harbor. This building became the first climate-controlled building in the United States.
In 1947, Howard Hughes was called to testify before the Senate War Investigating Committee over the usage of government funds for the aircraft.
During a Senate hearing on August 6, 1947 (the first of a series of appearances), Hughes said:
The Hercules was a monumental undertaking. It is the largest aircraft ever built. It is over five stories tall with a wingspan longer than a football field. That's more than a city block. Now, I put the sweat of my life into this thing. I have my reputation all rolled up in it and I have stated several times that if it's a failure, I'll probably leave this country and never come back. And I mean it.[13] [N 4]

Operational history

During a break in the Senate hearings, Hughes returned to California to run taxi tests on the H-4.[9] On November 2, 1947, the taxi tests began with Hughes at the controls. His crew included Dave Grant as co-pilot, two flight engineers, Don Smith and Joe Petrali, 16 mechanics, and two other flight crew. In addition, the H-4 carried seven invited guests from the press corps and an additional seven industry representatives. Thirty-six were on board.[14]
After the first two taxi runs, four reporters left to file stories, but the remaining press stayed for the final test run of the day.[15] After picking up speed on the channel facing Cabrillo Beach, the Hercules lifted off, remaining airborne at 70 ft (21 m) off the water and a speed of 135 miles per hour (217 km/h) for around a mile (1.6 km).[16] At this altitude, the aircraft still experienced ground effect.[17] Having proven to his detractors that Hughes' (by now unneeded) masterpiece was flight-worthy, thus vindicating the use of government funds,[18] the "Spruce Goose" never flew again. Its lifting capacity and ceiling were never tested. A full-time crew of 300 workers, all sworn to secrecy, maintained the aircraft in flying condition in a climate-controlled hangar. The crew was reduced to 50 workers in 1962, and then disbanded after Hughes' death in 1976.[19]

Display

In 1980, the Hercules was acquired by the California Aero Club, which put the aircraft on display in a large dome adjacent to the Queen Mary exhibit in Long Beach, California. In 1988, The Walt Disney Company acquired both attractions and the associated real estate. Disney informed the California Aero club that it no longer wished to display the Hercules after its highly ambitious Port Disney was scrapped. After a long search for a suitable host, the California Aero Club awarded custody of the Hughes flying boat to Evergreen Aviation Museum. Under the direction of museum staff, the aircraft was disassembled and moved by barge and truck to its current home in McMinnville, Oregon (about 40 miles (60 km) southwest of Portland), where it has been on display ever since. The Flying Boat arrived in McMinnville on February 27, 1993 after a 138-day, 1,055-mile (1,698 km) trip from Long Beach.
By the mid-1990s, the former Hughes Aircraft hangars at Hughes Airport, including the one that held the Hercules, were converted into sound stages. Scenes from movies such as Titanic, What Women Want and End of Days have been filmed in the 315,000 square foot (29,000 m²) aircraft hangar where Howard Hughes created the flying boat. The hangar will be preserved as a structure eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Buildings in what is today the large light industry and housing development Playa Vista in suburban Los Angeles.[20]

Specifications (H-4)

Performance specifications are projected.
Pratt & Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major engine
General characteristics
  • Crew: 3
  • Length: 218 ft 8 in (66.65 m)
  • Wingspan: 320 ft 11 in (97.54 m)
  • Height: 79 ft 4 in (24.18 m)
  • Fuselage height: 30 ft (9.1 m)
Performance

Notable appearances in media

In the 1988 biopic Tucker: The Man and His Dream, a pivotal meeting between automaker Preston Tucker and Howard Hughes takes place in front of the Hercules, within its hangar, where Hughes briefly tells Tucker that whether the Hercules flies is not the point, as well as how to circumvent the "establishment" and Senator Ferguson.
The 1987 animated feature Yogi Bear and the Magical Flight of the Spruce Goose features the Hercules prominently. In the 1991 adventure film The Rocketeer, hero Cliff Secord uses a large-scale model of the Hercules to escape some eager federal agents and Howard Hughes himself. After Secord glides the model to safety, Hughes expresses relief that the craft might actually fly.[21]
The Spruce Goose also played a minor role in the 2000 fictional flight simulator Crimson Skies (video game) by Microsoft.
The construction and flight of the Hercules was featured in the Hughes 2004 biopic The Aviator. Motion control and remote control models, as well as partial interiors and exteriors of the aircraft, were reproduced for this scene. The motion-control Hercules used for the film is on display at the Evergreen Aviation Museum, next to the real Hercules.
In the videogame, L.A. Noire (2011), the player is able to enter the aircraft. Additionally, exterior and interior views of the H-4 Hercules aircraft are featured in the opening introduction of the DLC mission, "Nicholson Electroplating".[22][23]
A size comparison between four of the largest aircraft:
  Hughes H-4 Hercules (1947)
  An-225 (first flight 1988)
  Airbus A380-800 (first flight 2005)
  Boeing 747-8 (first flight 2010)

See also

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ Quote: "Kaiser announces the most monumental program in the history of aviation."
  2. ^ The Hughes design was initially identified as the HFB-1 to signify "Hughes Flying Boat, First Design."[9]
  3. ^ The Hughes Corporation had utilized the duramold process which laminated plywood and resin into a lightweight but strong building material that could be shaped.
  4. ^ Hughes' Senate Hearings testimony is now in the public domain.

Citations

  1. ^ "Hughes HK-1 (H-4) 'Spruce Goose'." The Aviation Zone. Retrieved October 6, 2010.
  2. ^ "Spruce Goose." Evergreen Aviation Museum. Retrieved December 14, 2011.
  3. ^ McDonald 1981, p. 41.
  4. ^ a b Odekirk 1982, p. II.
  5. ^ a b McDonald 1981, p. 45.
  6. ^ Odekirk 1982, p. 1V.
  7. ^ McDonald 1981, pp. 41–44.
  8. ^ a b McDonald 1981, p. 40.
  9. ^ a b c Winchester 2005, p. 113.
  10. ^ a b McDonald 1981, pp. 58–59.
  11. ^ McDonald 1981, p. 56.
  12. ^ Winchester 2005, p. 113.
  13. ^ The Great Aviator: Howard Hughes, His Life, Loves & Films — A Documentary. Los Angeles: Delta Entertainment Corporation, 2004.
  14. ^ McDonald 1981, pp. 78–79.
  15. ^ McDonald 1981, pp. 85–87.
  16. ^ Francillon 1990, pp. 100, 102.
  17. ^ "Wing In Ground effect aerodynamics." se-technology.com. Retrieved: October 6, 2010.
  18. ^ "Howard Hughes & The Spruce Goose." Life, October 27, 2009. Retrieved: August 28, 2011.
  19. ^ Dean, Paul. "The Man Who Keeps The Spruce Goose." Los Angeles Times, April 21, 1983, p. J1.
  20. ^ Freeman, Paul. "Hughes Airport." Abandoned & Little-Known Airfields: California, Western Los Angeles area, October 10, 2012.
  21. ^ David 1991
  22. ^ "New L.A. Noire Screens from the "Nichsolson Electroplating" Arson Case." rockstargames.com. Retrieved: September 15, 2011.
  23. ^ Davison, Pete. "L.A. Noire Nicholson Electroplating DLC out now." gamepro.com, June 22, 2011. Retrieved: August 20, 2011.

Bibliography

  • David, Peter. The Rocketeer: The Official Movie Adaptation. Burbank, California: W D Publications Inc., 1991. ISBN 1-5685-190-4.
  • Francillon, RenĂ© J. McDonnell Douglas Aircraft since 1920: Volume II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990. ISBN 1-55750-550-0.
  • McDonald, John J. Howard Hughes and the Spruce Goose. Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania: Tab Books Inc., 1981. ISBN 0-8306-2320-5.
  • Odekirk, Glenn E. Spruce Goose (Title inside cover: HK-1 Hercules: A Pictorial History of the Fantastic Hughes Flying Boat). Long Beach, California: Glenn E. Odekirk and Frank Alcantr, Inc., 1982. No ISBN.
  • Schwartz, Milton L.The Spruce Goose Commemorative Pictorial. Oakland, California: The Wrather Corporation by Mike Roberts Color Productions, 1983.
  • Winchester, Jim. "Hughes H-4 'Spruce Goose'." Concept Aircraft: Prototypes, X-Planes and Experimental Aircraft. Kent, UK: Grange Books plc., 2005. ISBN 978-1-59223-480-6.
  • Yenne, Bill. Seaplanes & Flying Boats: A Timeless Collection from Aviation's Golden Age. New York: BCL Press, 2003. ISBN 1-932302-03-4.

External links

Vickers VC10

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
VC10
RAF Vickers VC10 K3 over the North Sea Lofting.jpg
A Royal Air Force VC-10 K3 in 2000
 Tipe Airliner
 Produsen Vickers-Armstrongs
 Terbang perdana 29 Juni 1962
 Diperkenalkan BOAC, 29 April 1964
 Status Active
 Pengguna BOAC
East African Airways
Ghana Airways
Royal Air Force
 Tahun produksi 1962 — 1970
 Jumlah produksi 54
 Harga satuan £1.75 juta
Vickers VC10 merupakan sebuah pesawat yang dibuat oleh Vickers-Armstrongs. Pesawat ini dahulu merupakan pesawat paling populer di dunia untuk waktu yang lama. VC10 pertama kali mengudara pada 1962. Hingga sekarang ini sudah tidak diproduksi lagi.
Pesawat ini mulai diproduksi pada tahun 1962 hingga 1970. Jumlah produksinya adalah 54.

Vickers Warwick

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Vickers Warwick.jpg
Vickers Warwick merupakan pesawat Britania Raya serbaguna yang digunakan semasa Perang Dunia II. Dibuat oleh Vickers-Armstrongs, Warwick digunakan oleh Tentara Udara DiRaja (RAF) sebagai pengangkut, penyelamat dan pemantauan marinir dan oleh British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC).

Daftar isi

Spesifikasi (Warwick I)

Karakteristik umum

  • Kru: six
  • Panjang: 72 kaki 3 in
  • Lebar sayap: 96 kaki 8 in
  • Tinggi: 18 kaki 6 in
  • Luas sayap: 1,006 ft²
  • Bobot kosong: 35,400 lb
  • Bobot terisi: 38,000 lb
  • Bobot maksimum lepas landas: 46,000 lb
  • Mesin: 2× radials Pratt & Whitney R-2800/S.1A4-G Double Wasp, 1,850 hp masing-masing

Kinerja

Persenjataan

Referensi

Bibliografi

  • Barfield, Norman. "Vickers-Armstrongs Warwick variants". Aircraft in Profile, Volume 11. Windsor, Berkshire, UK: Profile Publications Ltd., 1972.
  • Green, William and Scarborough, Gordon. WW2 Fact Files: RAF Bombers, Part 2. London: Jane's Publishing Company Ltd., 1981. ISBN 0-7106-0118-2.
  • Taylor, John W.R. "Vickers Warwick". Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the Present. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.

Vickers Valiant

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Vickers valiant camouflaged on ground arp.jpg
Vickers-Armstrong Valiant adalah jet bomber Inggris empat mesin, pernah menjadi bagian dari bomber V nuklir Royal Air Force pada 1950-an dan 1960-an. Valiant adalah yang pertama dari pembom V menjadi operasional, dan diikuti oleh Handley Halaman Victor dan Vulcan Avro , namun itu terasa kurang maju daripada rekan-rekan.
Valiant secara resmi pensiun pada tahun 1965. Tugasnya dilanjutkan oleh pembom-V lainnya yang tetap dalam pelayanan sampai 1980-an.

Vickers Vimy

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
 
 
Vickers Vimy, Pesawat Pengebom Inggris untuk Perang Dunia I pada tahun 1918
Vickers Vimy F.B.27 dikenal sebagai pesawat pertama yang melakukan penerbangan tanpa henti melintasi Samudra Atlantik.[1]
Vickers Vimy pada mulanya dibuat sebagai pesawat pengebom yang dirancang mampu meluncurkan serangan hingga ke Berlin, Jerman. Pertama kali diterbangkan pada 30 November 1917. Pada Juli 1919, pesawat Vimy dimasukkan dalam armada Royal Air Force (Angkatan Udara Inggris).[2]
Pesawat ini dibuat oleh Vickers, Ltd. sebuah perusahaan pembuat senjata serta perusahaan pembuat kapal, yang mulai membuat pesawat pada tahun 1919.[1] Pesawat-pesawat Vickers terlibat dalam Perang Dunia I, tetapi Vicker Vimy F.B.27, sebuah pesawat pengebom jarak jauh yang pertama kali diterbangkan tanggal 30 Desember 1917, tidak melakukan pertempuran dalam peperangan tersebut.[1] Ketika perang selesai, Vickers mulai menjajaki pemakaian pesawat yang lebih besar untuk mengangkut penduduk sipil.[1]
Sebelumnya, Samudra Atlantik sudah pernah dilintasi lewat udara pada bulan Mei 1919 oleh Letnan Angkatan Laut A.C. Read dari Amerika Serikat yang terbang menggunakan kapal-pesawat Curtiss NC-4.[1] Akan tetapi dalam perjalanannya, Read berhenti di beberapa tempat.[1] Vickers Vimy F.B.27 menjadi yang pertama melakukan penerbangan tanpa henti melintasi Samudra Atlantik.[1]

Daftar isi

Ekspedisi melintasi Samudera Atlantik

Vickers Vimy F.B.27 memulai penerbangannya pada 14 Juni 1919 dari Lester's Field, dekat St. Johns, Newfoundland, dan mendarat di County Galway, Irlandia pada 15 Juni 1919.[1] Bertindak sebagai pilot, Kapten John Alcock, mantan pilot Royal Naval Air Service dan Letnan Arthur Whitten Brown, mantan anggota Royal Flying Corp, bertindak sebagai navigator penerbangan tersebut.[1]
Alcock dan Brown terbang 1.890 mil (3.024 km) dengan kecepatan rata-rata 119 mph (190 km).[1] Total waktu penerbangan mereka adalah 16 jam 12 menit.[1] Sumber lain menyebutkan 16 jam 27 menit.[3]

Modifikasi pesawat

Vickers Vimy F.B.27 yang dipergunakan dalam ekspedisi mengarungi Samudera Atlantik ini merupakan modifikasi Vickers IV.[3] Pesawat tersebut bermesin dan bersayap ganda (biplane), yang memiliki ekor ganda pula, serta tempat duduk untuk tiga orang awak. [1] Pesawat yang dilengkapi dengan dua mesin Rolls Royce Eagle VIII dengan kekuatan 360 tenaga kuda tersebut dirancang untuk mengangkut sebuah bom berbobot 2.000 ton dan merupakan salah satu pesawat terbesar pada masanya.[1]
Untuk keperluan penerbangan tersebut, Vickers Vimy melepas semua elemen pengebomnya dan ditambah tanki bahan bakar tambahan yang memuat bahan bakar sebanyak 870 galon. Ditambah 40 galon minyak serta 6 galon air.[1]
Kokpit pesawat yang terbuka membuat awak pesawat tidak dapat bercakap-cakap, dan mereka harus berhadapan dengan awan dan kabut hampir sepanjang perjalanan.[1] Panel instrumen Vimy dipasang di luar pesawat di atas penutup mesinnya (cowling), sehingga saat para penerbang itu terhadang hujan, salju, dan hujan es, instrumen tersebut tidak terbaca. [1]Karena instrumen tak berfungsi dan tidak bisa melihat bintang, matahari atau bulan, Brown menavigasi pesawat tersebut menggunakan perkiraan dengan menghitung arah dan jarak yang telah ditempuh (dead reckoning).[1]

Pendaratan

Begitu tiba di Irlandia, Alcock mendaratkan Vimy ke atas rawa yang terlihat seperti lapangan mulus.[1] Landasan yang lunak membuat pesawat tersebut mendarat dengan bagian depan (hidung) pesawat terjungkir, tetapi tidak ada yang terluka.[1]
Usai penerbangan, Alcock dan Brown dinyatakan sebagai pahlawan nasional dan pesawat Vickers Vimy disimpan di Science Museum Inggris. [4] Selain itu, sejarah, foto dan replika mengenai Vickers Vimy dapat dilihat pula di Royal Airforce Museum, London

Vickers Viscount

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Vickers Viscount Model 843 milik Bouraq Indonesia di Bandar Udara Internasional Soekarno-Hatta, Jakarta, 1992
Vickers Viscount Model 802 milik British European Airways di Bandara Internasional Heathrow, London, 1964
Vickers Viscount adalah sebuah pesawat terbang dengan dua baling-baling yang diperkenalkan pada tahun 1953 oleh Vickers-Armstrongs, dan merupakan pesawat pertama macam ini yang masuk dinas pelayanan untuk pertama kalinya di dunia.
Pesawat ini lalu kelak akan menjadi salah satu yang paling sukses sebagai pesawat angkutan pasca Perang Dunia II, dengan 445 jumlah yang dibangun.
Pesawat ini benar-benar disukai oleh penumpang, sebab tidak berisik, bebas getaran, dan mempunyai jendela yang jauh lebih besar daripada yang ditemukan di pesawat penumpang yang lebih modern.
Di Indonesia pesawat ini digunakan sampai dasawarsa 1990-an oleh Bouraq dan Mandala Airlines.

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